Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, required ten strokes before being dispatched by a fatal blow. Three days later his head adorned the sled which drew fellow regicide John Cooke to his execution, before later being displayed in Westminster Hall; his quarters were fastened to the city gates. It could also be used as a method of execution, the live victim left to starve, or die of thirst, or exposure - generally being hoisted high up to prevent help or rescue. The medieval Spanish tablillas, was an instrument of torture used to crush toes. Pillories were set up to hold petty criminals outside churches, in marketplaces, crossroads, and other public places. They have locking devices to prevent them being removed. In the case of decapitation, it also sometimes took repeated blows to sever the head completely.
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Common methods of torture and abuse in the People's Republic of China
The victim was intermittently submerged for hours until he or she confessed, revealed information or drowned. In May , the last public garrotting was carried out in Spain, in Barcelona. Whenever the victim fainted from the pain, the torturer would lift the victim until the tortured person was "awake" again to commence with the process. It was most often used for traitors, murderers, highwaymen, pirates, and sheep-stealers, and was intended to discourage others from committing similar offences. An iron maiden German: Petty treason referred to the killing of a master or lord by his servant, a husband by his wife, or a prelate by his clergyman.
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In Germany, where the guillotine is known in German as Fallbeil "falling axe" , it was used in various German states from the 17th century onwards, becoming the usual method of execution in Napoleonic times in many parts of Germany. In France the condemned were placed on a cart-wheel with their limbs stretched out along the spokes over two sturdy wooden beams. The victim is thereby forced to empty their bowels on this chair and then sit in their excrement. This execution seems to have provided a template for legislation for later punishments for Treason in England. The heels must be kept raised to avoid touching the nails.
Since the condemned was hanging upside-down, the brain received a continuous blood supply in spite of the severe bleeding. Stocks are devices used in the medieval times as a form of physical punishment involving public humiliation. Many defendants charged with capital offences refused to plead, since by refusing they would escape forfeiture of property, and their heirs would still inherit their estate. Once stripped of their clothing, they were taken to the scaffold and hanged for a short period, but only to cause strangulation and near-death. Giles Corey was pressed to death during the Salem Witch Trials in the s.